What is Breast Adenoma?
Breast adenoma – a form of mastopathy along with fibroadenoma, fibroma, lipoma, etc. This tumor refers only to the glandular tissue or parenchyma, the character is benign.
Adenosis is an abnormal cell division of the parenchyma and its proliferation. It is detected in young girls from 20 to 30 years, because it is during this period that not only the most intensive development of the lobules, the milky passages and the intralobular ducts of the mammary glands occurs, but also their maximum functional load (which is associated with childbirth and lactation). After reaching the age of forty, the glandular tissue in the breast begins to be replaced by fatty and connective (fibrous). Therefore, after forty years, breast adenoma is almost never diagnosed.
Causes of Breast Adenoma
The main causes of breast adenoma are in violation of the production of sex hormones, in their imbalance. This fact has been proven by many researchers and today is not questioned. Processes in the mammary gland depend on the steroid hormones: progesterone, estrogen, somatropin, prolactin. Progesterone is responsible for the formation of glands in the breast, and the hormone estrogen is responsible for the processes associated with the development of connective tissue and ducts.
If progesterone begins to predominate in the woman’s body, it threatens with breast adenoma. If an excessive amount of estrogen begins to form, then fibrotic adenoma of the mammary gland is diagnosed. It is worth noting that this pathology is often observed in women with overweight, because it is in adipose tissue that estrogen accumulates.
The causes of breast adenoma in more than 30% of cases are the lack of thyroid hormones. This happens when women have thyroid abnormalities, as well as pancreatic hormone insulin (with a diagnosis of diabetes). Also, the disease in question may be associated with liver dysfunction, which removes excess hormones along with bile. And with violations in the hepatobiliary system, the liver simply does not cope with this function.
Also among the trigger factors emit stress. By the way, this applies not only to breast adenomas, but also to other formations in the breast. This is due to the repeated increase in the production of corticosteroids during stress periods, and this disrupts the normal metabolism.
Symptoms of Breast Adenoma
Breast adenoma is characterized by a slight hardening of a spherical shape with a diameter of about 10–20 mm in the glandular breast. Adenoma always has a smooth surface, its contour is clear. The “pea”, which is palpable in the chest, is mobile — moves in the gland. Pain does not cause formation, skin changes are not observed. Before a critical period, adenoma may become larger. After menstruation, adenoma becomes the same size as before.
If certain adverse factors affect the woman’s body, the neoplasm can reach a diameter of thirty mm. Also increases pain, because it puts more pressure on the nerve endings. When a woman becomes pregnant, the hormones in the body are rebuilt, therefore, in a quarter of cases, the so-called physiological adenosis is recorded. In case of fibrous adenoma of the mammary gland, connective tissue is also involved in the process, in addition to glandular tissue, therefore there may be a burning sensation in the mammary gland, as well as pain during palpation. Adenoma can be formed in one or both mammary glands, and in 2 cases out of ten adenomas are multiple.
Diagnosis of Breast Adenoma
The doctor listens to the patient’s complaints and palpates. A mammologist must necessarily prescribe a complete blood count and a biochemical examination of blood serum for the content of steroid hormones, as well as previous hormone-like compounds.
Only 1/3 of steroid hormones are found in blood plasma, therefore, it is problematic to accurately determine the degree of their negative impact on the processes in the mammary glands. Hardware diagnostic methods are needed, including ultrasound and mammography. The doctor may prescribe an x-ray study with the introduction of a contrast agent into the milk ducts (ductography). If there is a suspicion of adenoma malignancy, an aspiration biopsy is prescribed and a subsequent histological examination of the tumor cells.
Treatment of Breast Adenoma
Experts agree that in the diagnosis of breast adenoma therapy should be complex. Medications (even those based on hormones) cannot cure this disease. Recommended intake of vitamins: A, C, B6, E and P. Also, treatment includes taking the drug from laminaria Klamin, which is available in capsules and tablets. For normal functioning of the thyroid gland, organic iodine is required, which contains this medicine. The daily need of a woman for iodine is provided by three tablets of the above mentioned preparation. It improves lipid metabolism and the state of the mammary glands of girls and women.
If the size of the neoplasia does not exceed 10 mm, the doctor says that you need constant monitoring by a mammologist and a periodic ultrasound of the mammary glands. Over time, adenoma does not impair the health of many patients and does not adversely affect the functions of other systems and organs. There are also situations when the adenoma itself (without treatment) disappears. In women who have been diagnosed with adenoma, and who have passed the period of menopause, the size of the education decreases, although it almost never completely disappears.
Breast adenoma is removed if there is a concern about the good quality of the formation, when the node in the parenchyma of the gland is constantly growing, and also when its size leads to a clear defect in the patient’s appearance. As a surgical method using sectoral resection (excision). Fibrous adenoma is removed both with the help of resection and with the help of nucleation or peeling of the pathological node. But the most gentle way of getting rid of fibrous adenoma is laser-induced thermotherapy.
Hormonal treatment of breast adenoma is aimed at reducing the level of estrogen, progestron prolactin or somatropin (which depends on what kind of hormone in this woman in the body is in excess). Parlodel (bromocriptine) – medicine based on ergot alkaloid. It activates the dopamine receptors of the hypothalamus, reduces the synthesis of steroid hormones such as prolactin and somatropin. Parlodel must be taken in an amount of 1.25–2.5 mg in the second phase of the cycle. The duration of treatment is at least 3 months (determined by the attending physician). There may be side effects such as nausea (and sometimes vomiting), weakness in the body, headache, etc. It should not be taken by those who suffer from hypertension, as well as in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and / or cardiovascular system.
Such medicine as Diferelin is a synthetic analogue of natural gonadotropin. It reduces the production of both estrogen and progestor in the body due to inhibition of ovarian function. The drug is administered intramuscularly, every 4 weeks for 3 months. Obstruction of the ureter, brittle bones, increased blood pressure, bleeding from the uterus, headaches, tachycardia may occur. Also among the side effects are nausea and vomiting, alopecia, swelling, breast reduction, weight gain.
Provera is prescribed for the treatment of fibrous adenoma of the breast. Analogs: Ora-guest, Klinovir, Metilgesten. It inhibits the production of gonadotropins in the body. The dosage can be determined only by the attending physician. Taking the medication can cause side effects, such as hair loss, allergies, depression, sleep disorders, cerebral circulation, blood clots.
Prognosis for Breast Adenoma
Reborn and oncology breast adenomas are unlikely. Because the forecast is almost always favorable. There are no obstacles to pregnancy and breastfeeding. If fibrous adenoma of the mammary gland is diagnosed, then there is a risk of malignancy. In such cases, the prognosis is conditionally favorable. It must be remembered that the disease in question occurs only with hormonal imbalances in the body, and is not a precursor of breast cancer.
Prevention of Breast Adenoma
The main prevention of breast adenoma is attentiveness to one’s health, which includes, above all, a systematic examination of the mammary glands by each woman, especially if there is a tendency in the genus to pathologies of the breast and the entire genital area. In addition, timely treatment of diseases of the ovaries, uterus, thyroid and pancreas is necessary. An important role in the prevention of all hormone-dependent pathologies is weight loss and a healthy balanced diet.